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Overview[ edit ] ADSL works by spectrum above the band used by voice telephone calls. At the telephone exchange, the line generally terminates at a digital subscriber line access multiplexer DSLAM where another frequency splitter separates the voice band signal for the conventional phone network. Data carried by the ADSL are typically routed over the telephone company Analog Devices ADSL ETHUSB RTR data network and eventually reach a conventional Internet Protocol network.

There are both technical and marketing reasons why ADSL is in many places the most common type offered to home users. On the technical side, there is likely to be more crosstalk from other circuits at the DSLAM end where the wires from many local loops are close to each other than at the customer premises. Thus the upload signal is weakest at the noisiest part of the local loop, while the download signal is strongest at the noisiest part of the local loop. It therefore makes technical sense to have the DSLAM transmit at a higher bit rate than does the modem on the customer end. Since the typical home user in fact does prefer a higher download speed, the telephone companies chose to make a virtue out of necessity, hence ADSL.

The Analog Devices ADSL ETHUSB RTR reasons for an asymmetric connection are that, firstly, most users of internet traffic will require less data to be uploaded than downloaded. For example, in normal web browsing, a user will visit a number of web sites and will need to download the data that comprises the web pages from the site, images, text, sound files etc. This provides a justification for internet service providers to offer a more expensive service aimed at commercial users who host websites, and who therefore need a service which allows for as much data to be uploaded as downloaded. File sharing applications are an obvious exception to this situation.

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Secondly internet service providers, seeking to avoid overloading of their backbone connections, have traditionally tried to limit uses such as file sharing which generate a lot of uploads. FDD uses two separate frequency bands, referred to as the upstream and downstream bands. The upstream band is used for communication from the end user to the telephone central office.

The downstream band is used for communicating from the central office to the end user. Under the usual DMT scheme, each of these is further divided into smaller frequency channels of 4. These frequency channels are sometimes termed bins. During initial training to optimize transmission quality and speed, the ADSL modem tests each of the bins to Analog Devices ADSL ETHUSB RTR the signal-to-noise ratio at each bin's frequency. Distance from the telephone exchangecable characteristics, interference Analog Devices ADSL ETHUSB RTR AM radio stationsand local interference and electrical noise at the modem's location can adversely affect the signal-to-noise ratio at particular frequencies. Bins for frequencies exhibiting a reduced signal-to-noise ratio will be used at a lower throughput rate or not at all; this reduces the maximum link capacity but allows the modem to maintain an adequate connection.

The DSL modem will make a plan on how to exploit each of the bins, sometimes termed "bits per bin" allocation.


Those bins that have a good signal-to-noise ratio SNR will be chosen to transmit signals chosen from a greater number of possible encoded values this range of possibilities equating to more bits of data sent in each main clock cycle. The number of possibilities must not be so large that the receiver might incorrectly decode which Analog Devices ADSL ETHUSB RTR was intended in the presence of noise. If the pattern of noise versus frequencies heard in the bins changes, the DSL modem can alter the bits-per-bin allocations, in a process called "bitswap", where bins that have become more noisy are only required to carry fewer bits and other channels will be chosen to be given a higher Analog Devices ADSL ETHUSB RTR.


The data transfer capacity the DSL modem therefore reports is determined by the total of the bits-per-bin allocations of all the bins combined. Higher signal-to-noise ratios and more bins being in use gives a higher total link capacity, while lower signal-to-noise ratios or fewer bins being used gives a low link capacity. The total maximum capacity derived from summing the bits-per-bin is reported by DSL modems and is sometimes termed sync rate. This will always be rather misleading: In addition, some ISPs will have traffic policies Analog Devices ADSL ETHUSB RTR limit maximum transfer rates further in the networks beyond the exchange, and traffic congestion on the Internet, heavy loading on servers and slowness or inefficiency in customers' computers may all contribute to reductions below the maximum attainable.

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When a wireless access point is used, low or unstable wireless signal quality can also cause reduction or fluctuation of actual speed. In fixed-rate mode, the sync rate is predefined by the operator and the DSL modem chooses a bits-per-bin allocation that yields an Analog Devices ADSL ETHUSB RTR equal error rate in each bin. This conservatism, involving a choice of using fewer bits per bin as a safeguard against future noise increases, is reported as the signal-to-noise ratio margin or SNR margin. The telephone exchange can indicate a suggested SNR margin to the customer's DSL modem when it initially connects, and the modem may make its bits-per-bin allocation plan accordingly.


Analog Devices ADSL ETHUSB RTR high SNR margin will mean a reduced maximum throughput, but greater reliability and stability of the connection. A low SNR margin will mean high speeds, provided the noise level does not increase too much; otherwise, the connection will have to be dropped and renegotiated resynced. Analog Devices ADSL ETHUSB RTR spectrum of modem on ADSL line Vendors may support usage of higher frequencies as a proprietary extension to the standard. However, this requires matching vendor-supplied equipment on both ends of the line, and will likely result in crosstalk problems that affect other lines in the same bundle.

There is a direct relationship between the number of channels available and the throughput capacity of the ADSL connection.

The exact data capacity per channel depends Analog Devices ADSL ETHUSB RTR the modulation method used. Interleaving and fastpath[ edit ] ISPs but users Analog Devices ADSL ETHUSB RTR, apart from Australia where it's the default [4] have the option to use interleaving of packets to counter the effects of burst noise on the telephone line. An interleaved line has a depth, usually 8 to 64, which describes how many Reed—Solomon codewords are accumulated before they are sent. As they can all be sent together, their forward error correction codes can be made more resilient. Interleaving adds latency as all the packets have to first be gathered or replaced by empty packets and they, of course, all take time to transmit.

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Other possible depths are 16 and Analog Devices ADSL ETHUSB RTR has a low latency, usually around 10 ms interleaving adds to it, this is not greater than interleaved but it is extremely prone to errors, as any burst of noise can take out the entire packet and so require it all to be retransmitted. Such a burst on a large interleaved packet only blanks part of the packet, it can be recovered from error correction information in the rest of the packet.

A "fastpath" connection will result in extremely high latency on a poor line, as each packet will take many retries. Installation problems[ edit ] ADSL deployment on an existing plain old telephone service POTS telephone line presents some problems because the DSL is within a frequency band that might interact unfavourably with existing equipment connected to the line.

This page contains information about installing the latest Analog Devices ADSL ETH/USB RTR driver downloads using the Analog Devices Driver Update Tool. Analog Devices ADSL ETH/USB RTR Free Driver Download for Windows Vista,XP,ME, 98SE, 98, 95 - .

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