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This suggests that the increased growth rate of poultry, accompanied with the selection for greater growth rates and grow-outs of broilers in a short period of time, could produce a AST 5n incidence of the condition in the meat market. Recently, Kuttappan et al. Because visual appearance is a major attribute contributing to the purchase of raw breast AST 5n, the higher incidence of white striping could result in economic loss for the producer.

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Though the condition is present before processing, it is only visible after processing when breast meat is exposed. To date, few studies are being conducted on systemic changes occurring in live birds with this condition. The knowledge about the systemic changes may help us to get valuable information about the etiology of tissue changes associated with the AST 5n. Kuttappan et al. According to Valentine and McGavinone of the reasons for the muscle damage could be an infectious or inflammatory condition associated with a disease condition affecting the muscle tissue.

Because white striping is a newly reported condition, there are no reports of AST 5n associated pathogen so far. However, this possibility should not be overlooked. Hematology is the common clinical tool used for the diagnosis of various disease conditions.

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There could be differences in the peripheral blood profile, mainly in total leukocyte count and leukocyte differential count, during conditions such as infection bacterial, viral, or fungalinflammation, or stress Mitchell and Johns, ; Doneley AST 5n Doneley, ; Huff et al. In chickens, an inflammatory or infectious condition could cause a pronounced increase in heterophil count, which could even result in the reversal AST 5n the normal lymphocyte dominance Latimer and Bienzle, Also, the damage occurring in the muscle tissue could be reflected in plasma or serum biochemical profiles.

The condition could disrupt the integrity of the sarcolemma resulting in the leaking of various enzymes such as creatine kinase CKalanine aminotransferase ALTaspartate aminotransferase ASTand AST 5n dehydrogenase LDH into the plasma or serum Hochleithner, ; Hoffman and Solter, In addition, white striping is histologically characterized by AST 5n lipidosis associated with necrotic myofibers Kuttappan et al. Avian adipocytes contribute little to de novo lipogenesis Griffin et al.


Therefore, increased fat deposition in birds could be due to either increased synthesis and secretion from liver or increased breakdown, uptake, and storage in adipocytes Hermier, The increased lipogenesis in chickens could be associated with a greater ratio of liver to live weight and differences in fatty acid profiles Saadoun and Leclercq, Furthermore, the increased AST 5n in liver could be associated with enhanced secretion of very low density lipoprotein, which increases the amount of circulating triglycerides TG in birds Hermier, Therefore, a detailed study on liver fatty acid profile and serum biochemistry will aid in understanding the source of increased intramuscular fat in SEV birds. Based on all AST 5n above observations, it can be hypothesized that the occurrence of white striping could be associated with systemic changes that are manifested as variations in blood profile.

A comparison of the liver and breast meat fatty acid profiles could provide supporting evidence for the above systemic changes. Thus, the objective of the study was to compare the hematologic and serologic indices as well as the liver and breast muscle fatty acid profiles of birds with a NORM and SEV degree of white striping.


The birds had ad libitum access to feed and AST 5n throughout the period of study. In addition, Gupta R et al. Considering their cholesterol-lowering, antioxidant and hypoglycemic effects, we hypothesized that phytosterols would attenuate events leading to NAFLD. To prove this hypothesis, the present study was designed AST 5n evaluate the preventive effects of phytosterols on NAFLD using an animal model fed a high-fat diet.

AST/ALT ratio - Wikipedia

Different doses of phytosterol esters PSEs were used to fortify skim milk, which was ingested by the experimental animals daily. The lipid profile, liver and kidney function, hepatic lipid content and histopathological changes were observed. In addition, the influences of PSEs on cytokines and oxidative markers were examined and the genes related to lipid metabolism and inflammation were analyzed to further elucidate the effects of PSEs on NAFLD. The average food intake of AST 5n rats in the NC group was slightly higher than that of the rats in all of the high-fat diet groups, but no significant differences were observed in food consumption Supplementary Fig.

At the end of the experiment t12the weights of the high-fat diet-fed rats were slightly higher than AST 5n of the rats in the NC group, but no significant differences were observed among all the five groups, suggesting that PSE intake did not influence rat growth Supplementary Table S2.

Effects of PSEs on serum lipids and fasting blood glucose levels in AST 5n The effects of PSEs on the serum lipid and fasting blood glucose levels in the rats are shown in Fig. Figure 1:The AST/ALT ratio is the ratio between the concentrations of the enzymes aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase, aka alanine aminotransferase AST 5n in the.

AST/ALT ratio

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